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​The Taiwan Question and China's Reunification in the New Era
2022-08-11 00:55

The Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council and the State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China published a white paper titled "The Taiwan Question and China's Reunification in the New Era" on Wednesday.

The following is the full text of the white paper:

The Taiwan Question and China's Reunification in the New Era

The People's Republic of China

The Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council and The State Council Information Office

August 2022



I. Taiwan Is Part of China - This Is an Indisputable Fact

II. Resolute Efforts of the CPC to Realize China's Complete Reunification

III. China's Complete Reunification Is a Process That Cannot Be Halted

IV. National Reunification in the New Era

V. Bright Prospects for Peaceful Reunification



Resolving  the Taiwan question and realizing China's complete reunification is a  shared aspiration of all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation.  It is indispensable for the realization of China's rejuvenation. It is  also a historic mission of the Communist Party of China (CPC). The CPC,  the Chinese government, and the Chinese people have striven for decades  to achieve this goal.

The 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012 heralded a new era in  building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Under the strong  leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core, the CPC and the Chinese government have adopted new and innovative measures in relation to Taiwan. They have continued to chart the course of cross-Straits relations, safeguard peace and stability across the Taiwan  Straits, and promote progress towards national reunification. However, in recent years the Taiwan authorities, led by the Democratic  Progressive Party (DPP), have redoubled their efforts to divide the country, and some external forces have tried to exploit Taiwan to contain China, prevent the Chinese nation from achieving complete reunification, and halt the process of national rejuvenation.

The  CPC has united the Chinese people and led them in fulfilling the First  Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects as scheduled, and in embarking on a new journey towards the Second Centenary Goal of building China into a modern socialist country.

The  Chinese nation has achieved a historic transformation from standing upright to becoming prosperous and growing in strength, and national rejuvenation is driven by an unstoppable force. This marks a new starting point for reunification.

The  Chinese government has published two previous white papers on Taiwan. One was The Taiwan Question and Reunification of China in August 1993,  and the other was The One-China Principle and the Taiwan Issue in February 2000. These two white papers provided a comprehensive and  systematic elaboration of the basic principles and policies regarding  the resolution of the Taiwan question. This new white paper is being released to reiterate the fact that Taiwan is part of China, to demonstrate the resolve of the CPC and the Chinese people and their  commitment to national reunification, and to emphasize the position and policies of the CPC and the Chinese government in the new era.

I. Taiwan Is Part of China - This Is an Indisputable Fact

Taiwan  has belonged to China since ancient times. This statement has a sound basis in history and jurisprudence. New archeological discoveries and research findings regularly attest to the profound historical and cultural ties between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits. A large number of historical records and annals document the development of Taiwan by the Chinese people in earlier periods.

The  earliest references to this effect are to be found, among others, in  Seaboard Geographic Gazetteer compiled in the year 230 by Shen Ying of the State of Wu during the Three Kingdoms Period. The royal court of the Sui Dynasty had on three occasions sent troops to Taiwan, called Liuqiu at that time. Starting from the Song and Yuan dynasties, the imperial central governments of China all set up administrative bodies to exercise jurisdiction over Penghu and Taiwan.

In  1624, Dutch colonialists invaded and occupied the southern part of Taiwan. In 1662, General Zheng Chenggong, hailed as a national hero, led an expedition and expelled them from the island. Subsequently, the Qing court gradually set up more administrative bodies in Taiwan. In 1684, a Taiwan prefecture administration was set up under the jurisdiction of  Fujian Province. In 1885, Taiwan's status was upgraded and it became the  20th province of China.

In  July 1894, Japan launched a war of aggression against China. In April 1895, the defeated Qing government was forced to cede Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to Japan. During the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1931-1945), China's Communists called for the recovery of Taiwan. Talking with American journalist Nym Wales on  May 15, 1937, Mao Zedong said that China's goal was to achieve a final victory in the war - a victory that would recover the occupied Chinese territories in Northeast China and to the south of the Shanhai Pass, and secure the liberation of Taiwan.

On December 9, 1941, the Chinese government issued a declaration of war against Japan, and proclaimed that all treaties, conventions, agreements, and contracts regarding relations between China and Japan had been abrogated, and that China would recover Taiwan and the Penghu Islands.

The Cairo Declaration issued by China, the United States and the United Kingdom on December 1, 1943 stated that it was the purpose of the three allies that all the territories Japan had stolen from China, such as Northeast China, Taiwan and the Penghu Islands, should be restored to China.

The Potsdam Proclamation was signed by China, the United States and the United Kingdom on July 26, 1945, and subsequently recognized by the Soviet Union. It reiterated: "The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out." In September of the same year, Japan signed the instrument of surrender, in which it promised that it would faithfully fulfill the obligations laid down in the Potsdam Proclamation. On October 25 the Chinese government announced that it was resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Taiwan, and the ceremony to accept Japan's surrender in Taiwan Province of the China war theater of the Allied powers was held in Taibei (Taipei). From that point forward, China had recovered Taiwan de jure and de facto through a host of documents with international legal effect.

On  October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) was founded, becoming the successor to the Republic of China (1912-1949), and the Central People's Government became the only legitimate government of the whole of China. The new government replaced the previous KMT regime in a situation where China, as a subject under international law, did not change and China's sovereignty and inherent territory did not change. As a natural result, the government of the PRC should enjoy and exercise China's full sovereignty, which includes its sovereignty over Taiwan.

As  a result of the civil war in China in the late 1940s and the interference of external forces, the two sides of the Taiwan Straits have fallen into a state of protracted political confrontation. But the sovereignty and territory of China have never been divided and will never be divided, and Taiwan's status as part of China's territory has never changed and will never be allowed to change.

At  its 26th session in October 1971, the United Nations General Assembly  adopted Resolution 2758, which undertook "to restore all its rights to  the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representatives of  its Government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations, and to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it". This resolution  settled once and for all the political, legal and procedural issues of  China's representation in the UN, and it covered the whole country,  including Taiwan. It also spelled out that China has one single seat in  the UN, so there is no such thing as "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan".

The  specialized agencies of the UN later adopted further resolutions  restoring to the PRC its lawful seat and expelling the representatives  of the Taiwan authorities. One of these is Resolution 25.1 adopted at  the 25th World Health Assembly in May 1972. It was clearly stated in the  official legal opinions of the Office of Legal Affairs of the UN  Secretariat that "the United Nations considers 'Taiwan' as a province of  China with no separate status", and the "'authorities' in 'Taipei' are  not considered to... enjoy any form of government status". At the UN the  island is referred to as "Taiwan, Province of China"[1].

Resolution  2758 is a political document encapsulating the one-China principle  whose legal authority leaves no room for doubt and has been acknowledged  worldwide. Taiwan does not have any ground, reason, or right to join  the UN, or any other international organization whose membership is  confined to sovereign states.

In  recent years some elements in a small number of countries, the US  foremost among them, have colluded with forces in Taiwan, to falsely  claim that the resolution did not conclusively resolve the issue of  Taiwan's representation. Puffing up the illegal and invalid Treaty of  San Francisco[2] and disregarding the Cairo Declaration, the Potsdam  Proclamation and other international legal documents, they profess that  the status of Taiwan has yet to be determined, and declare their support  for "Taiwan's meaningful participation in the UN system". What they are  actually attempting to do is to alter Taiwan's status as part of China  and create "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan" as part of a  political ploy - using Taiwan to contain China. These actions in  violation of Resolution 2758 and international law are a serious breach  of political commitments made by these countries. They damage China's  sovereignty and dignity, and treat the basic principles of international  law with contempt. The Chinese government has condemned and expressed  its resolute opposition to them.

The  one-China principle represents the universal consensus of the  international community; it is consistent with the basic norms of  international relations. To date, 181 countries including the United  States have established diplomatic relations with the PRC on the basis  of the one-China principle. The China-US Joint Communique on the  Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, published in December 1978,  states: "The Government of the United States of America acknowledges the  Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of  China." It also states: "The United States of America recognizes the  Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal  Government of China. Within this context, the people of the United  States will maintain cultural, commercial, and other unofficial  relations with the people of Taiwan."

The  Constitution of the People's Republic of China, adopted at the Fifth  Session of the Fifth National People's Congress (NPC) in December 1982,  stipulates: "Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's  Republic of China. It is the inviolable duty of all Chinese people,  including our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of  reunifying the motherland."

The  Anti-Secession Law, adopted at the Third Session of the 10th NPC in  March 2005, stipulates: "There is only one China in the world. Both the  mainland and Taiwan belong to one China. China's sovereignty and  territorial integrity brook no division. Safeguarding China's  sovereignty and territorial integrity is the common obligation of all  Chinese people, the Taiwan compatriots included. Taiwan is part of  China. The state shall never allow the 'Taiwan independence'  secessionist forces to make Taiwan secede from China under any name or  by any means."

The  National Security Law, adopted at the 15th meeting of the Standing  Committee of the 12th NPC in July 2015, stipulates: "The sovereignty and  territorial integrity of China brook no violation or separation.  Safeguarding national sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity is  the common duty of all Chinese citizens, including Hong Kong, Macao and  Taiwan compatriots."

We  are one China, and Taiwan is part of China. This is an indisputable  fact supported by history and the law. Taiwan has never been a state;  its status as part of China is unalterable. Any attempt to distort these  facts and dispute or deny the one-China principle will end in failure.

II. Resolute Efforts of the CPC to Realize China's Complete Reunification

The  CPC has always been dedicated to working for the wellbeing of the  Chinese people and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Soon after  its founding in 1921, the CPC set itself the goal of freeing Taiwan from  colonial rule, reuniting it with the rest of the country and liberating  the whole nation, including compatriots in Taiwan. It has made a  tremendous effort to achieve this goal.

The  CPC is committed to the historic mission of resolving the Taiwan  question and realizing China's complete reunification. Under its  resolute leadership, people on both sides of the Taiwan Straits have  worked together to de-escalate tension across the Straits. They have set  out on a path of peaceful development and made many breakthroughs in  improving cross-Straits relations.

After  the founding of the PRC in 1949, China's Communists, under the  leadership of Mao Zedong, proposed the essential guideline, underlying  principle, and basic policy for peaceful settlement of the Taiwan  question. The CPC prepared and worked for the liberation of Taiwan,  thwarted the Taiwan authorities' plans to attack the mainland, and  foiled attempts to create "two Chinas" and "one China, one Taiwan".  Through their efforts, the lawful seat and rights of the PRC in the  United Nations were restored and the one-China principle was subscribed  to by the majority of countries, laying important groundwork for  peaceful reunification. The CPC central leadership established  high-level contact with the Taiwan authorities through proper channels  in pursuit of a peaceful solution to the Taiwan question.

Following  the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee in 1978,  with the establishment of diplomatic relations between the PRC and the  United States, China's Communists, led by Deng Xiaoping, defined the  fundamental guideline for peaceful reunification in the vital interests  of the country and the people and on the basis of the consensus for  peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question. The CPC introduced the  creative and well-conceived concept of One Country, Two Systems, and  applied it first in resolving the questions of Hong Kong and Macao. It  took action to ease military confrontation across the Taiwan Straits,  restore contact, and open up people-to-people exchanges and cooperation,  opening a new chapter in cross-Straits relations.

After  the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee in 1989,  China's Communists, led by Jiang Zemin, made eight proposals for the  development of cross-Straits relations and the peaceful reunification of  China[3]. The CPC facilitated agreement across the Straits on the 1992  Consensus, which embodies the one-China principle. It initiated  cross-Straits consultations and negotiations, resulting in the first  talks between heads of the non-governmental organizations authorized by  the two sides of the Straits, and expanded cross-Straits exchanges and  cooperation in various fields. The CPC took firm action against  separatist activities led by Lee Teng-hui, and struck hard at the  separatist forces seeking "Taiwan independence". It ensured the smooth  return of Hong Kong and Macao to China, and applied the policy of One  Country, Two Systems, which had a constructive impact on the settlement  of the Taiwan question.

After  the 16th CPC National Congress in 2002, China's Communists, led by Hu  Jintao, highlighted the importance of peaceful development of  cross-Straits relations. The CPC pushed for the enactment of the  Anti-Secession Law to curb separatist activities in Taiwan, hosted the  first talks between the leaders of the CPC and the Kuomintang in six  decades since 1945, and defeated attempts by Chen Shui-bian to fabricate  a legal basis for "independence". The CPC effected profound changes in  moving the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations forward by  promoting institutionalized consultations and negotiations that produced  fruitful results, establishing overall direct two-way links in mail,  business and transport, and facilitating the signing and implementation  of the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement.

After  the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China's Communists, under the  leadership of Xi Jinping, took a holistic approach to cross-Straits  relations in keeping with changing circumstances, added substance to the  theory on national reunification and the principles and policies  concerning Taiwan, and worked to keep cross-Straits relations on the  right track. The CPC developed its overall policy for resolving the  Taiwan question in the new era, and set out the overarching guideline  and a program of action.

At  its 19th National Congress in October 2017, the CPC affirmed the basic  policy of upholding One Country, Two Systems and promoting national  reunification, and emphasized its resolve never to allow any person, any  organization, or any political party, at any time or in any form, to  separate any part of Chinese territory from China.

In  January 2019, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central  Committee and president of China, addressed a meeting marking the 40th  anniversary of the release of the Message to Compatriots in Taiwan. In  his speech, Xi Jinping proposed major policies to advance the peaceful  development of cross-Straits relations and the peaceful reunification of  China in the new era. These are: first, working together to promote  China's rejuvenation and its peaceful reunification; second, seeking a  Two Systems solution to the Taiwan question and making innovative  efforts towards peaceful reunification; third, abiding by the one-China  principle and safeguarding the prospects for peaceful reunification;  fourth, further integrating development across the Straits and  consolidating the foundations for peaceful reunification; fifth, forging  closer bonds of heart and mind between people on both sides of the  Straits and strengthening joint commitment to peaceful reunification.

The  CPC and the Chinese government have thereby adopted a series of major  measures for charting the course of cross-Straits relations and  realizing China's peaceful reunification:

-  The CPC and the Chinese government have facilitated the first meeting  and direct dialogue between leaders of the two sides since 1949, raising  exchanges and interactions to new heights, opening up a new chapter,  and creating new space for cross-Straits relations. This is a new  milestone. The departments in charge of cross-Straits affairs on both  sides have established regular contact and communication mechanisms on a  common political foundation, and the heads of the two departments have  exchanged visits and set up hotlines.

-  Upholding the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, the CPC and  the Chinese government have facilitated exchanges between political  parties across the Straits, and conducted dialogues, consultations, and  in-depth exchanges of views on cross-Straits relations and the future of  the Chinese nation with relevant political parties, organizations, and  individuals in Taiwan. These efforts have resulted in consensus on  multiple issues, and promoted a number of joint initiatives exploring  the Two Systems solution to the Taiwan question with all sectors of  Taiwan society.

-  Guided by the conviction that people on both sides of the Taiwan  Straits are of the same family, the CPC and the Chinese government have  promoted peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and integrated  development of the two sides for the benefit of both the mainland and  Taiwan. We have also refined the institutional arrangements, policies  and measures to promote cross-Straits exchanges and cooperation,  designed to advance the wellbeing of the people of Taiwan. These include  the delivery of water from the coastal province of Fujian to Kinmen  Island, electronic travel passes for Taiwan residents to enter or leave  the mainland, residence permits for Taiwan residents, progressively  ensuring that Taiwan compatriots have equal access to public services so  as to facilitate their studying, starting businesses, working and  living on the mainland, and an ongoing effort to pave the way for Taiwan  to benefit first from the mainland's development opportunities.

-  While countering interference and obstruction from separatist forces,  the CPC and the Chinese government have called on the people of Taiwan  to promote effective and in-depth cooperation and people-to-people  exchanges in various fields across the Straits. Having overcome the  impact of COVID-19, we have held a number of exchange events such as the  Straits Forum, and maintained the momentum of cross-Straits exchanges  and cooperation.

-  Resolute in defending state sovereignty and territorial integrity and  opposing separatist activities and external interference, the CPC and  the Chinese government have safeguarded peace and stability in the  Taiwan Straits and the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. We  have taken lawful action against and effectively deterred separatist  forces. We have handled Taiwan's external exchanges in a sound manner,  and consolidated the international community's commitment to the  one-China principle.

Under  the guidance of the CPC, great progress has been made in cross-Straits  relations over the past seven decades, especially since the estrangement  between the two sides was ended. Increased exchanges, broader  cooperation and closer interactions have brought tangible benefits to  people across the Straits, especially of Taiwan. This fully demonstrates  that cross-Straits amity and cooperation are mutually beneficial.

The  volume of cross-Straits trade was only US$46 million in 1978. It rose  to US$328.34 billion in 2021, up by a factor of more than 7,000. The  mainland has been Taiwan's largest export market for the last 21 years,  generating a large annual surplus for the island. The mainland is also  the largest destination for Taiwan's off-island investment. By the end  of 2021 Taiwan businesses had invested in almost 124,000 projects on the  mainland, to a total value of US$71.34 billion[4].

In  1987 less than 50,000 visits were made between the two sides; by 2019  this number had soared to about 9 million. In the past three years,  affected by COVID-19, online communication has become the main form of  people-to-people interactions across the Straits, and the numbers of  people participating in and covered by online communication are reaching  new highs.

The  CPC has always been the spine of the Chinese nation, exercising strong  leadership in realizing national rejuvenation and reunification. Its  consistent efforts over the decades to resolve the Taiwan question and  achieve complete national reunification are based on the following:

First, the one-China principle must be upheld, and no individual or force should be allowed to separate Taiwan from China.

Second,  it is imperative to strive for the wellbeing of all Chinese people,  including those in Taiwan, and to realize the aspirations of all Chinese  people for a better life.

Third,  we must follow the principles of freeing the mind, seeking truth from  facts, maintaining the right political orientation, and breaking new  ground, and defend the fundamental interests of the nation and the core  interests of the state in formulating principles and policies on work  related to Taiwan.

Fourth,  it is necessary to have the courage and skill to fight against any  force that attempts to undermine China's sovereignty and territorial  integrity or stands in the way of its reunification.

Fifth,  extensive unity and solidarity must be upheld to mobilize all factors  to fight against any force that would divide the country, and pool  strengths to advance national reunification.

III. China's Complete Reunification Is a Process That Cannot Be Halted

Against  a backdrop of profound and complex changes in the domestic and  international situation, our cause of complete national reunification is  facing new challenges. The CPC and the Chinese government have the  strength and the confidence to deal with complexities and overcome risks  and threats, and the ability to take great strides forward on the path  to national reunification.

1. Complete Reunification Is Critical to National Rejuvenation

Throughout  China's 5,000-year history, national reunification and opposition to  division have remained a common ideal and a shared tradition of the  whole nation. In the modern era from the mid-19th century, due to the  aggression of Western powers and the decadence of feudal rule, China was  gradually reduced to a semi-feudal, semi-colonial society, and went  through a period of suffering worse than anything it had previously  known. The country endured intense humiliation, the people were  subjected to great pain, and the Chinese civilization was plunged into  darkness. Japan's 50-year occupation of Taiwan epitomized this  humiliation and inflicted agony on both sides of the Taiwan Straits. Our  two sides face each other just across a strip of water, yet we are  still far apart. The fact that we have not yet been reunified is a scar  left by history on the Chinese nation. We Chinese on both sides should  work together to achieve reunification and heal this wound.

National  rejuvenation has been the greatest dream of the Chinese people and the  Chinese nation since the modern era began. Only by realizing complete  national reunification can the Chinese people on both sides of the  Straits cast aside the shadow of civil war and create and enjoy lasting  peace. National reunification is the only way to avoid the risk of  Taiwan being invaded and occupied again by foreign countries, to foil  the attempts of external forces to contain China, and to safeguard the  sovereignty, security, and development interests of our country. It is  the most effective remedy to secessionist attempts to divide our  country, and the best means to consolidate Taiwan's status as part of  China and advance national rejuvenation. It will enable us to pool the  strengths of the people on both sides, build our common home, safeguard  our interests and wellbeing, and create a brighter future for the  Chinese people and the Chinese nation. As Dr Sun Yat-sen, the great  pioneer of China's revolution, once said, "Unification is the hope of  all Chinese nationals. If China can be unified, all Chinese will enjoy a  happy life; if it cannot, all will suffer."

In  exploring the path to rejuvenation and prosperity, China has endured  vicissitudes and hardships. "Unification brings strength while division  leads to chaos." This is a law of history. The realization of complete  national reunification is driven by the history and culture of the  Chinese nation and determined by the momentum towards and circumstances  surrounding our national rejuvenation. Never before have we been so  close to, confident in, and capable of achieving the goal of national  rejuvenation. The same is true when it comes to our goal of complete  national reunification. The Taiwan question arose as a result of  weakness and chaos in our nation, and it will be resolved as national  rejuvenation becomes a reality. When all the Chinese people stick  together and work together, we will surely succeed in realizing national  reunification on our way to national rejuvenation.

2. National Development and Progress Set the Direction of Cross-Straits Relations

China's  development and progress are a key factor determining the course of  cross-Straits relations and the realization of complete national  reunification. In particular, the great achievements over four decades  of reform, opening up and modernization have had a profound impact on  the historical process of resolving the Taiwan question and realizing  complete national reunification. No matter which political party or  group is in power in Taiwan, it cannot alter the course of progress in  cross-Straits relations or the trend towards national reunification.

International  Monetary Fund statistics show that in 1980 the GDP of the mainland was  about US$303 billion, just over 7 times that of Taiwan, which was about  US$42.3 billion; in 2021, the GDP of the mainland was about US$17.46  trillion, more than 22 times that of Taiwan, which was about US$790  billion.[5]

China's  development and progress, and in particular the steady increases in its  economic power, technological strength, and national defense  capabilities, are an effective curb against separatist activities and  interference from external forces. They also provide broad space and  great opportunities for cross-Straits exchanges and cooperation. As more  and more compatriots from Taiwan, especially young people, pursue their  studies, start businesses, seek jobs, or go to live on the mainland,  cross-Straits exchanges, interaction and integration are intensified in  all sectors, the economic ties and personal bonds between the people on  both sides run deeper, and our common cultural and national identities  grow stronger, leading cross-Straits relations towards reunification.

The  CPC has united the Chinese people and led them in embarking on the new  journey of building China into a modern socialist country in all  respects. Following the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics,  the mainland has improved its governance and maintained long-term  economic growth; it enjoys a solid material foundation, a wealth of  human resources, a huge market, strong resilience in development, and  social stability. It therefore has many strengths and favorable  conditions for further development, and these have become the driving  force for reunification.

Grounding  its effort in the new development stage, the mainland is committed to  applying the new development philosophy, creating a new development  dynamic, and promoting high-quality development. As a result, the  overall strength and international influence of the mainland will  continue to increase, and its influence over and appeal to Taiwan  society will keep growing. We will have a more solid foundation for  resolving the Taiwan question and greater ability to do so. This will  give a significant boost to national reunification.

3. Any Attempt by Separatist Forces to Prevent Reunification Is Bound to Fail

Taiwan  has been an integral part of China's territory since ancient times.  Moves to separate Taiwan from China represent the serious crime of  secession, and undermine the common interests of compatriots on both  sides of the Taiwan Straits and the fundamental interests of the Chinese  nation. They will lead nowhere.

The  DPP authorities have adopted a separatist stance, and colluded with  external forces in successive provocative actions designed to divide the  country. They refuse to recognize the one-China principle, and distort  and deny the 1992 Consensus. They assert that Taiwan and the mainland  should not be subordinate to each other, and proclaim a new "two states"  theory. On the island, they constantly press for "de-sinicization" and  promote "incremental independence". They incite radical separatists in  and outside the DPP to lobby for amendments to their "constitution" and  "laws". They deceive the people of Taiwan, incite hostility against the  mainland, and obstruct and undermine cross-Straits exchanges,  cooperation and integrated development. They have steadily built up  their military forces with the intention of pursuing "independence" and  preventing reunification by force. They join with external forces in  trying to sow the seeds of "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan". The  actions of the DPP authorities have resulted in tension in cross-Straits  relations, endangering peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits, and  undermining the prospects and restricting the space for peaceful  reunification. These are obstacles that must be removed in advancing the  process of peaceful reunification.

Taiwan  belongs to all the Chinese people, including the 23 million Taiwan  compatriots. The Chinese people are firm in their resolve and have a  deep commitment to safeguarding China's sovereignty and territorial  integrity, and the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation, and this  resolve and commitment will frustrate any attempt to divide the  country. When Taiwan was invaded by a foreign power more than 100 years  ago, China was a poor and weak country. More than 70 years ago, China  defeated the invaders and recovered Taiwan. Today, China has grown into  the world's second largest economy. With significant growth in its  political, economic, cultural, technological, and military strength,  there is no likelihood that China will allow Taiwan to be separated  again. Attempts to reject reunification and split the country are  doomed, because they will founder against the history and culture of the  Chinese nation as well as the resolve and commitment of more than 1.4  billion Chinese people.

4. External Forces Obstructing China's Complete Reunification Will Surely Be Defeated

External  interference is a prominent obstacle to China's reunification. Still  lost in delusions of hegemony and trapped in a Cold War mindset, some  forces in the US insist on perceiving and portraying China as a major  strategic adversary and a serious long-term threat. They do their utmost  to undermine and pressurize China, exploiting Taiwan as a convenient  tool. The US authorities have stated that they remain committed to the  one-China policy and that they do not support "Taiwan independence". But  their actions contradict their words. They are clouding the one-China  principle in uncertainty and compromising its integrity. They are  contriving "official" exchanges with Taiwan, increasing arms sales, and  colluding in military provocation. To help Taiwan expand its  "international space", they are inducing other countries to interfere in  Taiwan affairs, and concocting Taiwan-related bills that infringe upon  the sovereignty of China. They are creating confusion around what is  black and white, right and wrong. On the one hand, they incite  separatist forces to create tension and turmoil in cross-Straits  relations. On the other hand, they accuse the mainland of coercion,  pressurizing Taiwan, and unilaterally changing the status quo, in order  to embolden these forces and create obstacles to China's peaceful  reunification.

The  important principles of respecting state sovereignty and territorial  integrity as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations are the  cornerstones of modern international law and basic norms of  international relations. It is the sacred right of every sovereign state  to safeguard national unity and territorial integrity. It goes without  saying that the Chinese government is entitled to take all measures  necessary to settle the Taiwan question and achieve national  reunification, free of external interference.

Behind  the smokescreens of "freedom, democracy, and human rights" and  "upholding the rules-based international order", some anti-China forces  in the US deliberately distort the nature of the Taiwan question - which  is purely an internal matter for China - and try to deny the legitimacy  and justification of the Chinese government in safeguarding national  sovereignty and territorial integrity. This clearly reveals their  intention of using Taiwan to contain China and obstruct China's  reunification, which should be thoroughly exposed and condemned.

These  external forces are using Taiwan as a pawn to undermine China's  development and progress, and obstruct the rejuvenation of the Chinese  nation. They are doing so at the cost of the interests, wellbeing and  future of the people of Taiwan rather than for their benefit. They have  encouraged and instigated provocative actions by the separatist forces;  these have intensified cross-Straits tension and confrontation, and  undermined peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. This runs  counter to the underlying global trends of peace, development and  win-win cooperation, and goes against the wishes of the international  community and the aspiration of all peoples.

Shortly  after the PRC was founded, even though the country itself had to be  rebuilt on the ruins of decades of war, China and its people won a  resounding victory in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea  (1950-1953). We defeated a powerful and well-armed enemy through  gallantry and tenacity. In doing so, we safeguarded the security of the  newly founded People's Republic, reestablished the status of China as a  major country in the world, and demonstrated our heroic spirit, our lack  of fear, and our will to stand up against the abuse of the powerful.

China  is firmly committed to peaceful development. At the same time, it will  not flinch under any external interference, nor will it tolerate any  infringement upon its sovereignty, security and development interests.  Relying on external forces will achieve nothing for Taiwan's  separatists, and using Taiwan to contain China is doomed to fail.

Tranquility,  development and a decent life are the expectations of our Taiwan  compatriots, and the common aspiration of those on both sides of the  Taiwan Straits. Under the strong leadership of the CPC, the Chinese  people and the Chinese nation have stood upright, won prosperity, and  grown in strength. A moderately prosperous society in all respects has  been built on the mainland, where a large population once lived in dire  poverty. We now have better conditions, more confidence, and greater  capabilities. We can complete the historic mission of national  reunification, so that both sides of the Straits can enjoy a better  life. The wheel of history rolls on towards national reunification, and  it will not be stopped by any individual or any force.

IV. National Reunification in the New Era

Taking  into consideration the overall goal of national rejuvenation in the  context of global change on a scale unseen in a century, the CPC and the  Chinese government have continued to follow the CPC's fundamental  guidelines on the Taiwan question and implement its principles and  policies towards Taiwan, and have made concrete efforts to promote  peaceful cross-Straits relations, integrate the development of the two  sides, and work towards national reunification.

1. Upholding the Basic Principles of Peaceful Reunification and One Country, Two Systems

National  reunification by peaceful means is the first choice of the CPC and the  Chinese government in resolving the Taiwan question, as it best serves  the interests of the Chinese nation as a whole, including our  compatriots in Taiwan, and it works best for the long-term stability and  development of China. We have worked hard to overcome hardships and  obstacles to peaceful reunification over the past decades, showing that  we cherish and safeguard the greater good of the nation, the wellbeing  of our compatriots in Taiwan, and peace on both sides.

The  One Country, Two Systems principle is an important institutional  instrument created by the CPC and the Chinese government to enable  peaceful reunification. It represents a great achievement of Chinese  socialism. Peaceful reunification and One Country, Two Systems are our  basic principles for resolving the Taiwan question and the best approach  to realizing national reunification. Embodying the Chinese wisdom - we  thrive by embracing each other - they take full account of Taiwan's  realities and are conducive to long-term stability in Taiwan after  reunification.

We  maintain that after peaceful reunification, Taiwan may continue its  current social system and enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance  with the law. The two social systems will develop side by side for a  long time to come. One Country is the precondition and foundation of Two  Systems; Two Systems is subordinate to and derives from One Country;  and the two are integrated under the one-China principle.

We  will continue working with our compatriots in Taiwan to explore a Two  Systems solution to the Taiwan question and increase our efforts towards  peaceful reunification. In designing the specifics for implementing One  Country, Two Systems, we will give full consideration to the realities  in Taiwan and the views and proposals from all walks of life on both  sides, and fully accommodate the interests and sentiments of our  compatriots in Taiwan.

Ever  since the One Country, Two Systems principle was proposed, certain  political forces have been misrepresenting and distorting its  objectives. The DPP and the authorities under its leadership have done  everything possible to target the principle with baseless criticisms,  and this has led to misunderstandings about its aims in some quarters of  Taiwan. It is a fact that since Hong Kong and Macao returned to the  motherland and were reincorporated into national governance, they have  embarked on a broad path of shared development together with the  mainland, and each complements the others' strengths. The practice of  One Country, Two Systems has been a resounding success.

For  a time, Hong Kong faced a period of damaging social unrest caused by  anti-China agitators both inside and outside the region. Based on a  clear understanding of the situation there, the CPC and the Chinese  government upheld the One Country, Two Systems principle, made some  appropriate improvements, and took a series of measures that addressed  both the symptoms and root causes of the unrest. Order was restored and  prosperity returned to Hong Kong. This has laid a solid foundation for  the law-based governance of Hong Kong and Macao and the long-term  continuation of One Country, Two Systems.

To  realize peaceful reunification, we must acknowledge that the mainland  and Taiwan have their own distinct social systems and ideologies. The  One Country, Two Systems principle is the most inclusive solution to  this problem. It is an approach that is grounded in democratic  principles, demonstrates good will, seeks peaceful resolution of the  Taiwan question, and delivers mutual benefit. The differences in social  system are neither an obstacle to reunification nor a justification for  secessionism. We firmly believe that our compatriots in Taiwan will  develop a better understanding of the principle, and that the Two  Systems solution to the Taiwan question will play its full role while  compatriots on both sides work together towards peaceful reunification.

Peaceful  reunification can only be achieved through consultation and discussion  as equals. The long-standing political differences between the two sides  are the fundamental obstacles to the steady improvement of  cross-Straits relations, but we should not allow this problem to be  passed down from one generation to the next. We can phase in flexible  forms of consultation and discussion. We are ready to engage with all  parties, groups, or individuals in Taiwan in a broad exchange of views  aimed at resolving the political differences between the two sides based  on the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus. Representatives will  be recommended by all political parties and all sectors of society on  both sides, and they will engage in democratic consultations on peaceful  development of cross-Straits relations, integrated development of the  two sides, and the peaceful reunification of our country.

2. Promoting Peaceful Cross-Straits Relations and Integrated Development

Peaceful  cross-Straits relations and integrated development pave the way for  reunification and serve to benefit our people on both sides. Thus, both  sides should work together towards this goal. We will extend integrated  development, increase exchanges and cooperation, strengthen bonds, and  expand common interests in the peaceful development of cross-Straits  relations. In this way, we will all identify more closely with the  Chinese culture and Chinese nation, and heighten the sense of our shared  future. This lays solid foundations for peaceful reunification.

We  will explore an innovative approach to integrated development and take  the lead in setting up a pilot zone for integrated cross-Straits  development in Fujian Province, advancing integration through better  connectivity and more preferential policies, and based on mutual trust  and understanding. Both sides should continue to promote connectivity in  any area where it is beneficial, including trade and economic  cooperation, infrastructure, energy and resources, and industrial  standards. We should promote cooperation in culture, education, and  health care, and the sharing of social security and public resources. We  should support neighboring areas or areas with similar conditions on  the two sides in providing equal, universal, and accessible public  services. We should take active steps to institutionalize cross-Straits  economic cooperation and create a common market for the two sides to  strengthen the Chinese economy.

We  will improve the systems and policies to guarantee the wellbeing of  Taiwan compatriots and ensure that they are treated as equals on the  mainland, and we will protect their legitimate rights and interests here  in accordance with the law. We will support our fellow Chinese and  enterprises from Taiwan in participating in the Belt and Road  Initiative, major regional development strategies, and the strategy for  coordinated regional development. We will help them integrate into the  new development dynamic, participate in high-quality development, share  in more development opportunities, and benefit from national  socio-economic development.

We  will expand cross-Straits exchanges and cooperation in various fields  and overcome any obstacles and obstruction. We will encourage our people  on both sides to pass on the best of traditional Chinese culture and  ensure that it grows in new and creative ways. We will strengthen  communication among the general public and the younger generations on  both sides, and encourage more fellow Chinese in Taiwan - young people  in particular - to pursue studies, start businesses, seek jobs, or live  on the mainland. This will help people on both sides to expand mutual  understanding, strengthen mutual trust, consolidate a shared sense of  identity, and forge closer bonds of heart and mind.

3. Defeating Separatism and External Interference

Separatism  will plunge Taiwan into the abyss and bring nothing but disaster to the  island. To protect the interests of the Chinese nation as a whole,  including our compatriots in Taiwan, we must resolutely oppose it and  work for peaceful reunification. We are ready to create vast space for  peaceful reunification; but we will leave no room for separatist  activities in any form.

We  Chinese will decide our own affairs. The Taiwan question is an internal  affair that involves China's core interests and the Chinese people's  national sentiments, and no external interference will be tolerated. Any  attempt to use the Taiwan question as a pretext to interfere in China's  internal affairs or obstruct China's reunification will meet with the  resolute opposition of the Chinese people, including our compatriots in  Taiwan. No one should underestimate our resolve, will and ability to  defend China's sovereignty and territorial integrity.

We  will work with the greatest sincerity and exert our utmost efforts to  achieve peaceful reunification. But we will not renounce the use of  force, and we reserve the option of taking all necessary measures. This  is to guard against external interference and all separatist activities.  In no way does it target our fellow Chinese in Taiwan. Use of force  would be the last resort taken under compelling circumstances. We will  only be forced to take drastic measures to respond to the provocation of  separatist elements or external forces should they ever cross our red  lines.

We  will always be ready to respond with the use of force or other  necessary means to interference by external forces or radical action by  separatist elements. Our ultimate goal is to ensure the prospects of  China's peaceful reunification and advance this process.

Some  forces in the US are making every effort to incite groups inside Taiwan  to stir up trouble and use Taiwan as a pawn against China. This has  jeopardized peace and stability across the Taiwan Straits, obstructed  the Chinese government's efforts towards peaceful reunification, and  undermined the healthy and steady development of China-US relations.  Left unchecked, it will continue to escalate tension across the Straits,  further disrupt China-US relations, and severely damage the interests  of the US itself. The US should abide by the one-China principle, deal  with Taiwan-related issues in a prudent and proper manner, stand by its  previous commitments, and stop supporting Taiwan separatists.

4. Working with Our Fellow Chinese in Taiwan Towards National Reunification and Rejuvenation

National  reunification is an essential step towards national rejuvenation. The  future of Taiwan lies in China's reunification, and the wellbeing of the  people in Taiwan hinges on the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, an  endeavor that bears on the future and destiny of the people on both  sides. A united and prosperous China will be a blessing for all Chinese,  while a weak and divided China will be a disaster. Only China's  rejuvenation and prosperity can bring lives of plenty and happiness to  both sides. But it requires the joint efforts of both sides, as does the  complete reunification of the country.

Separatist  propaganda and the unresolved political dispute between the two sides  have created misconceptions over cross-Straits relations, problems with  national identity, and misgivings over national reunification among some  fellow Chinese in Taiwan. Blood is thicker than water, and people on  both sides of the Straits share the bond of kinship. We have great  patience and tolerance and we will create conditions for closer  exchanges and communication between the two sides, and to increase our  compatriots' knowledge of the mainland and reduce these misconceptions  and misgivings, in order to help them resist the manipulation of  separatists.

We  will join hands with our fellow Chinese in Taiwan to strive for  national reunification and rejuvenation. We hope they will stand on the  right side of history, be proud of their Chinese identity, and fully  consider the position and role of Taiwan in China's rejuvenation. We  hope they will pursue the greater good of the nation, resolutely oppose  separatism and any form of external interference, and make a positive  contribution to the just cause of China's peaceful reunification.

V. Bright Prospects for Peaceful Reunification

Once  peaceful reunification is achieved under One Country, Two Systems, it  will lay new foundations for China to make further progress and achieve  national rejuvenation. At the same time, it will create huge  opportunities for social and economic development in Taiwan and bring  tangible benefits to the people of Taiwan.

1. Taiwan Will Have a Vast Space for Development

Taiwan  boasts a high level of economic growth, industries with distinctive  local features, and robust foreign trade. Its economy is highly  complementary with that of the mainland. After reunification, the  systems and mechanisms for cross-Straits economic cooperation will be  further improved. Backed up by the vast mainland market, Taiwan's  economy will enjoy broader prospects, become more competitive, develop  steadier and smoother industrial and supply chains, and display greater  vitality in innovation-driven growth. Many problems that have long  afflicted Taiwan's economy and its people can be resolved through  integrated cross-Straits development with all possible connectivity  between the two sides. Taiwan's fiscal revenues can be better employed  to improve living standards, bringing real benefits to the people and  resolving their difficulties.

Taiwan's  cultural creativity will also enjoy a great boost. Both sides of the  Taiwan Straits share the culture and ethos of the Chinese nation.  Nourished by the Chinese civilization, Taiwan's regional culture will  flourish and prosper.

2. The Rights and Interests of the People in Taiwan Will Be Fully Protected

Provided  that China's sovereignty, security and development interests are  guaranteed, after reunification Taiwan will enjoy a high degree of  autonomy as a special administrative region. Taiwan's social system and  its way of life will be fully respected, and the private property,  religious beliefs, and lawful rights and interests of the people in  Taiwan will be fully protected. All Taiwan compatriots who support  reunification of the country and rejuvenation of the nation will be the  masters of the region, contributing to and benefitting from China's  development. With a powerful motherland in support, the people of Taiwan  will enjoy greater security and dignity and stand upright and  rock-solid in the international community.

3. Both Sides of the Taiwan Straits Will Share the Triumph of National Rejuvenation

The  people of Taiwan are brave, diligent and patriotic, and have made  unremitting efforts to improve themselves. They revere their ancestry  and love their homeland. Working together and applying their talents,  people on both sides of the Taiwan Straits will create a promising  future. After reunification, we Chinese will bridge gaps and differences  caused by long-term separation, share a stronger sense of national  identity, and stand together as one. After reunification, we can  leverage complementary strengths in pursuit of mutual benefit and common  development. After reunification, we can join hands to make the Chinese  nation stronger and more prosperous, and stand taller among all the  nations of the world.

The  people separated by the Taiwan Straits share the same blood and a  common destiny. After reunification, China will have greater  international influence and appeal, and a stronger ability to shape  international public opinion, and the Chinese people will enjoy greater  self-esteem, self-confidence and national pride. In Taiwan and on the  mainland the people will share the dignity and triumph of a united China  and be proud of being Chinese. We will work together to refine and  implement the Two Systems solution to the Taiwan question, to improve  the institutional arrangements for implementing the One Country, Two  Systems policy, and to ensure lasting peace and stability in Taiwan.

4. Peaceful Reunification of China Is Conducive to Peace and Development in the Asia-Pacific and the Wider World

Peaceful  cross-Straits reunification is of benefit not only to the Chinese  nation, but to all peoples and the international community as a whole.  The reunification of China will not harm the legitimate interests of any  other country, including any economic interests they might have in  Taiwan. On the contrary, it will bring more development opportunities to  all countries; it will create more positive momentum for prosperity and  stability in the Asia-Pacific and the rest of the world; it will  contribute more to building a global community of shared future,  promoting world peace and development, and propelling human progress.

After  reunification, foreign countries can continue to develop economic and  cultural relations with Taiwan. With the approval of the central  government of China, they may set up consulates or other official and  quasi-official institutions in Taiwan, international organizations and  agencies may establish offices, relevant international conventions can  be applied, and relevant international conferences can be held there.


Over  its 5,000-year history, China has created a splendid culture that has  shone throughout the world from past times to present, and has made an  enormous contribution to human society. After a century of suffering and  hardship, the nation has overcome humiliation, emerged from  backwardness, and embraced boundless development opportunities. Now, it  is striding towards the goal of national rejuvenation.

Embarking  on a new journey in a new era, the CPC and the Chinese government will  continue to rally compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Straits, and  lead the efforts to answer the call of the times, shoulder historic  responsibilities, grasp our fate and our future in our own hands, and  work hard to achieve national reunification and rejuvenation.

The  journey ahead cannot be all smooth sailing. However, as long as we  Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Straits devote our ingenuity and  energy to the same goal, let there be no doubt - we will tolerate no  foreign interference in Taiwan, we will thwart any attempt to divide our  country, and we will combine as a mighty force for national  reunification and rejuvenation. The historic goal of reuniting our  motherland must be realized and will be realized.


[1] United Nations Juridical Yearbook 2010, p. 516.

[2]  Between September 4 and 8, 1951, the United States gathered a number of  countries in San Francisco for what they described as the San Francisco  Peace Conference. Neither the PRC nor the Soviet Union received an  invitation. The treaty signed at this meeting, commonly known as the  Treaty of San Francisco, included an article under which Japan renounced  all rights, title and claim to Taiwan and the Penghu Islands. This  treaty contravened the provisions of the Declaration by United Nations  signed by 26 countries - including the United States, the United  Kingdom, the Soviet Union and China - in 1942, the fundamental  principles of the UN Charter, and the basic norms of international law.  The PRC was excluded from its preparation, drafting and signing, and its  rulings on the territory and sovereign rights of China - including the  sovereignty over Taiwan - are therefore illegal and invalid. The Chinese  government has always refused to recognize the Treaty of San Francisco,  and has never from the outset deviated from this stance. Other  countries, including the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the  Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and Vietnam, have also  refused to recognize the document's authority.

[3]  In his speech titled "Continue to Promote the Reunification of the  Motherland" on January 30, 1995, Jiang Zemin, then general secretary of  the CPC Central Committee and president of China, made eight proposals  for the development of cross-Straits relations and peaceful national  reunification. He emphasized, "Adhering to the one-China principle is  the basis and prerequisite for peaceful reunification", and "in not  promising to renounce the use of force, we are in no way targeting our  Taiwan compatriots, but rather foreign forces conspiring to interfere in  China's peaceful reunification and bring about Taiwan independence".  (See Selected Works of Jiang Zemin, Vol. I, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages  Press, Beijing, 2009, pp. 407-412.)

[4] This figure does not include reinvestment by Taiwan investors through a third place.

[5] From the statistics of the April 2022 edition of the World Economic Outlook databases of the International Monetary Fund.

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